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  • Where can I buy CIAT equipment?

    If you are a contractor or end user you can purchase CIAT equipment via CIAT directly or through one of our authorised distributors using the following links



    I am a large end user company and would like to discuss setting up a purchase agreement with CIAT, who do I speak to?

    If you have a large requirement/rollout programme and you would like to discuss this with CIAT directly, you can contact us on 01372 220151 or alternatively send an email to Sales@ciat.utc.com and we will contact you to discuss your requirements.

    Which units are best suited for a domestic application?

    In this case the most suitable units would be the Ereba air to water packaged heatpumps or the or GEOCIAT water to water range of heatpumps) For more information on the residential range please visit the relevant product pages on our website or contact your local Sales representative / distributor.



    Which units are best suited for a general office application?

    CIAT manufacture a complete range of equipment suitable for commercial premises, should this be for a single small water fan coil unit in a small office or a 1000 room office / hotel. All these units are designed to offer superior energy efficiency and the highest reliability available in today’s market. As well as individual fan coil units CIAT manufacture a full range of Air Handling Units, air to water & water to water chillers & heatpumps to compliment the installation. You can view the full product ranges on our website at the link below, or alternatively contact one of our approved distributors for advice.



    What is the difference between residential and commercial equipment?

    The residential range is predominately aimed at domestic and smaller office spaces with small compact units that are aesthetically pleasing and typically smaller capacity of cooling and heating, whereas the commercial range is aimed at larger office and industrial applications and is designed to link into more sophisticated control systems such as BMS and other control logics. For prices on the two sections please contact CIAT direct.


    Can the equipment heat as well as cool?

    Yes. CIAT water chillers & packaged rooftop units that heat as well as cool are referred to as ‘heat-pump’ systems. These systems are either reversible type fitted with additional valves pre-fitted to the outdoor unit that can reverse the flow of refrigerant cycle. Or in the case of larger water / water heatpumps, the control logic is changed from cooling setpoint to heating setpoint, where the refrigerant cycle in the unit stays the same but the two external water circuits are reversed. Both types can offer significant energy savings over conventional heating systems

    What should I do to ensure my unit runs effectively and efficiently this summer?

    Dirty / partially blocked heat exchangers reduce the cooling and heating performance of your equipment and increase your electricity consumption and energy bills. Regular cleaning of filters on fan coil units and outdoor coils ensures your system operates at its optimum performance & energy efficiency, & reduces the risk of premature component failure.

    Which controls come as standard?

    For chillers & heatpumps the controllers supplied for each separate range are standard, Ereba & GEOCIAT are supplied with the CS1B room controller. Small capacity water / water reversible heatpumps (Dynaciat ILG range) are supplied with the Microconnect type controller. The larger air cooled & water cooled chillers & heatpumps are supplied either with the CIAT connect2 / Xtraconnect2 or the Connect Touch controllers.

    Full details can be found under the various product categories on the following link


    What refrigerant does my system run on?

    Toshiba systems are designed to run on high performance refrigerant R410a which is an environmentally friendly refrigerant and has a zero ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential).

    How do I obtain support on my unit?

    To obtain support of your Toshiba equipment you will need contact your original supplier of the equipment who will be able to offer guidance. Should you have a issue during the warranty period you can contact


    Should you wish technical support, you can contact CIAT technical direct who will be able to offer assistance.


    How do I use my CIAT unit controller?

    Dependent on the type of controller which you have there are different settings. Using the following link you will be able to locate the owner’s manual for your controller.


    How do I get my unit serviced?

    We recommend that your air conditioning system should be serviced in accordance with the details in the unit IO&M. Regular routine maintenance by your CIAT service provider will ensure that your system operates efficiently. It may be necessary to service your air conditioning system more regularly dependent on its location and application. For service & aftersales assistance please contact.


    What is the life span of a CIAT unit?

    The expected run time of a CIAT unit 15-25 years dependent on usage and application. This figure is based on units being serviced and maintained in accordance with the unit IO&M maintenance guidelines & to F-Gas regulations & limitations of use as set out in each unit installation, operation & maintenance documentation.

    What are the warranty terms and conditions?

    CIAT is at the forefront of warranty protection for customers setting the industry’s leading warranty terms; 3, 5, 6 and 7 years. How can we do this? CIAT manufacturing processes, innovative high quality components, and dedication to training professionals ensure that we have an extremely low failure rate.

    How do I make a claim if my unit was to fail?

    If in the unlikely event your unit was to fail within your warranty period you would need to contact your original installer/supplier who will initiate the warranty claim with CIAT directly.

    For how much longer can I use equipment charged with R-22 refrigerant?

    There is no restriction on the operation of equipment that uses R-22. However, since January 2015, the use of R-22 to service or repair equipment is prohibited. This ban applies to all R-22 even that recovered or reclaimed from other equipment. So, it is possible to continue operating the unit for as long as it works without service intervention. In conclusion, it is highly recommended to replace the equipment because in case of refrigerant leaks or failure, it won’t be possible to repair it.

    What are the alternatives to replace R-22 in existing chillers?

    Most chillers operating with R-22 are now 20 years old. Very often they have reciprocating compressors and a basic control system. Given that these units are coming to the end of their expected life, it is strongly recommended to consider replacing them with new, more energy efficient units. Attempting to convert such units to an alternative refrigerant is likely to be a false economy. Conversion may require significant modification of the unit, but produce unpredictable results in terms of both performance and reliability.

    How will the new F-gas regulation affect the choice of refrigerant for chillers?

    Chillers and other commercial air conditioning systems are impacted by the new F-gas regulation. Although the new regulation doesn’t include bans for chillers and other commercial HVAC systems, the gradual phase down of HFC’s quantities on the market will push the industry to use lower GWP refrigerants. Since 2017 the price of HFC’s has started to rise significantly, especially for those gases with high Global Warming Potential (GWP)
    Note: In the new F-gas regulation, the use of HFC’s with GWP greater than 750 will be prohibited from 2025 for mono split-system room air conditioners containing less than 3 kg of refrigerant.

    Will it be possible to service chillers using R-134a or R-410A in the future?

    In the new F-gas regulation there are no restrictions on the use of R-134a or R-410A refrigerant for servicing refrigeration or air conditioning equipment. The new regulation introduces a gradual phase down of HFC’s quantities (in tons of C02 equivalent) with 21% of the reference level still available after 2030 to service equipment. Therefore, it should be possible to service chillers with R-134a or R-410A for the foreseeable future.
    Note: In the new F-gas regulation, the use of virgin refrigerant with very GWP > 2500 (R-404A, R-507A) to service large commercial & industrial refrigeration systems will be prohibited from 2020. After that date only reclaimed and recycled refrigerant can be used up to 2030.

    I have heard about possible taxes on HFC’s, can you tell me more?

    Several governments, eg, Denmark, Norway & Spain… have introduced taxes on HFC’s. Some schemes tax all sales of refrigerant, others only tax refrigerant used for the servicing of equipment. The level of tax is typically related to the GWP of the refrigerant (for example; 20 € per ton of CO2 equivalent in Spain). The French government is also evaluating the implementation of a tax on HFC refrigerants from 2019. With uncertainties on refrigerant prices, we should anticipate that the quantity of refrigerant in a unit and the GWP of the refrigerant are becoming significant market drivers for customers who will operate chillers for the next 15/20 years. Thanks to their innovative designs, CIAT chillers have up to 50% less refrigerant charge than similar competitors units and are thus well positioned to minimize operating costs in the event of HFC taxation and price rises

    How do you expect HFC prices to change in the future?

    With the gradual reduction of HFC quotas in tons of CO2 equivalent (see F-gas regulation) refrigerant suppliers have to lower the overall GWP of all refrigerants they place on the market while delivering the same quantities of refrigerant (the market demand in tons of refrigerant is supposed constant). To achieve this target, refrigerant suppliers have increased the price of refrigerants with high GWP’s to push customers to use alternative gases with lower GWP’s. Between 2016 and 2018 prices of refrigerant used for air conditioning & chillers have increased by approximately 500%

    What is CIAT’s competitive position on refrigerant charge?

    CIAT has introduced several technologies that minimize refrigerant charge, e.g.: Micro Channel Heat Exchanger (MCHE), Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger (BPHE). CIAT products are best in class in terms of refrigerant charge and have up to 50% less refrigerant than competitors units. With uncertainties over refrigerant prices, the charge of a system becomes an important purchasing driver for customers who will operate chillers for the next 15 years.

    What are the alternatives to R-410A for new equipment?

    There are multiple solutions to replace R-410A in chillers.
    Medium GWP HFCs (GWP 750-300), R-32 or R32/HFO blends (R-452B or R-454B) are potential candidates to replace R-410A. All are mildly flammable (A2L safety class). All these substances are subject to the HFC phase down of the F-gas regulation, therefore they are considered as transitional refrigerants.

    Hydrocarbons, such as propane, have very low GWP’s (GWP < 10) but are highly flammable (A3 safety class). As such, they could be acceptable for small outdoor systems with limited refrigerant charge.

    Although CO2, is a very effective refrigerant for commercial refrigeration, it is not suitable for air conditioning applications because of its low efficiency. It may, however, find applications in high temperature heat pumps used to produce domestic hot water.
    HFO refrigerants with nearly zero GWP are long term solutions but they will require the development of new compressor technologies.

    What is CIAT refrigerant choice as a replacement for R410A for chillers?

    R-410A alternatives must provide an acceptable compromise in terms of GWP, human safety, energy efficiency, and system cost. After several years of research and evaluation, we believe that medium GWP HFCs (R-32, R-452B, R-454B), are the best choice to replace R-410A in the near future, however all these gases are mildly flammable (A2L safety class) and will require some design change.
    New refrigerants will be introduced as soon as systems have been fully qualified so we can guaranty the same level of reliability as today.

    What are the alternatives to R134a for new equipment?

    There are multiple solutions to replace R-134a in chillers.
    Very low GWP HFO’s (GWP < 10), e.g.: R-1234ze(E), are long term solution for new screw chillers. HFO R-1234ze(E) offers good energy efficiency but is mildly flammable (A2L safety class). For a given compressor size HFOs deliver approximately 20 to 25% less cooling capacity, therefore chillers operating with HFOs are more expensive.
    Medium GWP (GWP 750-300) R-134a/HFO blends (R-450A, R-513A…) can also be used for screw chillers. These substances are non-flammable (A1 safety class) and do not require additional safety devices. All these substances are subject to the HFC phase down of the F-gas regulation, therefore they are considered as transitional refrigerants.
    Hydrocarbons such as propane have very low GWP (GWP < 10). They are not suitable for large air conditioning applications because of their high flammability (A3 refrigerant safety class).
    Although CO2 is a very effective refrigerant for commercial refrigeration, it is not suitable for air conditioning applications because of its low efficiency.
    Ammonia can be an acceptable refrigerant for industrial process chillers; however it is toxic, mildly flammable (B2L refrigerant safety class) and the technology requires high capital costs.

    What is CIAT’s refrigerant choice as a replacement for R134a in chillers?

    R-134a alternatives must provide an acceptable compromise in terms of GWP, human safety, energy efficiency, and system cost. After several years of research and evaluation, we believe that two solutions are possible.
    Medium GWP HFCs (R-450A, R-513A) are non-flammable and require minimal design changes. They are viewed as transitional refrigerants. As non-flammable gases they are well suited to offer cost effective solution for indoor water cooled chillers.
    Very low GWP HFO R-1234ze(E) is seen as a long term solution for new equipment; however it is mildly flammable (A2L safety class) and require design changes.
    New refrigerants will be introduced as soon as systems have been fully qualified so we can deliver the same level of reliability as today.

    Can we use CO2 as refrigerant for chillers?

    For chillers, CO2 (R-744) does not deliver the right energy efficiency because comfort chillers typically operate in summer time and tend to operate in the ‘trans-critical’ region of the fluid properties. However, CO2 can be a good solution for high temperature heat pumps such as those intended for domestic hot water production.

    Can we use ammonia as refrigerant for chillers?

    Yes, ammonia (R-717) has been used for many years; however it is not an attractive solution for comfort chillers because of its toxicity and high installation and maintenance costs. Ammonia has 0 GWP but it is toxic and mildly flammable (B2L safety class). It is not compatible with copper and therefore requires costly open drive compressors with potential refrigerant leaks. Ammonia chillers cost approximately twice the price of chillers that use an HFC and they require expensive safety protection in machine rooms. They also suffer from high service costs because of the toxicity of the refrigerant and the requirement to change the compressor shaft seal and the refrigerant on a regular basis. In addition ammonia refrigerant is not well suited to air cooled applications because of its high discharge temperature.

    What are the car industry’s strategies for refrigerant?

    The EU Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) directive restricts the use of refrigerant with GWP > 150 in motor vehicles. Some years ago the worldwide car industry has agreed to use HFO’s R1234yf, mildly flammable (A2L safety class) as an alternative to R-134a. In Europe since January 2017 all new cars sold in Europe shall use a refrigerant with GWP < 150.

    Can we retrofit an R-410A chiller with a lower GWP refrigerant?

    No, for now, all R-410A alternatives are mildly flammable (A2L safety class) and cannot be used to retrofit existing equipment designed to operate with non-flammable R-410A refrigerant.

    Can we retrofit an R-134a chiller with a lower GWP refrigerant?

    Yes, in the future it should be possible to retrofit existing R-134a chillers with R-134a/HFO blends (R-450A, R-513A…) these substances have medium GWP and are not flammable. The replacement of R-134a will lead to a drop of the cooling capacity by approximately 5 to 10% and will require minor modification of the unit.

    Are there specific safety requirements to install chillers with A2L refrigerants?

    First it is mandatory to comply with safety requirements from local building safety codes with regard to the installation and operation of refrigeration equipment in buildings
    In general for air cooled chillers, there is no specific requirement
    In general for water cooled chillers, machinery rooms shall comply with safety requirements from EN378: no direct communication with the occupied spaces, dedicated room for refrigeration equipment, refrigerant leak detectors, explosion proof emergency ventilation…etc.

    I have heard about constraints for importers of HVAC equipment made outside Europe

    According to the new F-gas regulation from January 2017 importers of HVAC equipment made outside the EU shall ensure that the refrigerant contained in the equipment is covered by F-gas quotas.
    In practical terms importers of equipment shall purchase from a refrigerant producer or importer in Europe an authorization to use its quotas. The cost of the authorization will represent a nonnegligible asset for the importer and will have an impact on the price of the equipment. In addition every year the importer shall request an accredited auditor to reconcile the quantity of refrigerant allowed by the authorization with the actual quantity placed on the market in products.
    In conclusion since 2017 it is complex and more costly to import HVAC equipment, therefore certain customers might have a preference for EU made products



    HCFC refrigerant

    HCFC stands for hydrochlorofluorocarbons. HCFC’s like R-22 refrigerant are substances depleting the ozone layer. HCFC’s are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. In Europe since the 2000’s HCFC refrigerants are prohibited in new equipment and their production banned since 2010.

    HFC refrigerant

    HFC stands for hydrofluorocarbons. They belong to the family of fluorinated gases. HFC’s have been developed by the industry to replace substances depleting the ozone layer. HFC’s are mainly used as refrigerant for refrigeration & air conditioning equipment, aerosols sprays and insulation foams. HFC’s are non-toxic and have zero ozone depletion potential. All HFC’s are potent greenhouse gases.
    R-32, R-32/HFO blends and R-134a/HFO blends are lower GWP alternatives to R-410A & R134a however they still fall into the basket of fluorinated gases controlled by the F-gas regulation and therefore seen as transitional refrigerants

    HFO refrigerant

    HFO stands for hydrofluoroolefin. It’s the latest generation of synthetic refrigerants. Pure HFO’s have zero impact on the ozone layer (ODP) and nearly zero global warming potential (GWP). HFO’s are non-toxic; however in certain conditions most of them are mildly flammable when mixed with air. HFO R-1234yf has been designed as a substitute of HFC R-134a for the car industry. HFO refrigerants developed for the HVAC industry are R-1234ze(E) and R-1233zd(E) With nearly zero GWP, pure HFO’s are not subject to the measures of the F-gas regulation and are therefore long term refrigerant solutions.

    HFC/HFO blend refrigerant

    HFCs can be mixed with HFOs to offer lower GWP alternatives with close thermodynamic properties to existing HFC refrigerants. R32/HFO blends designed as an alternative to R-410A, eg: R-452B, R-454B are mildly flammable while R-134a/blends, eg R-450A, R-513A, are nonflammable. It is important to note that all HFC/HFO blends are on a regulatory point of view HFCs. All HFC/HFO blends fall into the basket of fluorinated gases controlled by the F-gas regulation and are therefore seen as transitional refrigerants.

    Refrigerant GWP

    GWP stands for Global Warming Potential. It is a relative index to quantify the amount of heat trapped in the atmosphere by a greenhouse gas. By definition the GWP of carbon dioxide (CO2) is equal to 1.
    Example: R-134a with GWP 1430 means that 1 kg of R-134a has the same impact on global warming as 1430 kg of CO2.
    GWP values are calculated over a period of 100 years and are updated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on a regular basis. Thus GWP values may slightly differ in the different publications.
    Refrigerants can be classified in 3 main categories

    1. Legacy refrigerants with high GWP >750
    2. Transitional refrigerants with medium GWP 750 to 300
    3. Long term refrigerants with very low GWP < 150


    GWP Values of Main Refrigerants


    New F-gas regulation

    The first European regulation on fluorinated gases (F-gas) was adopted in 2006 to reduce the emission of fluorinated gases with high global warming potential and thus to protect the environment. Since 1st January 2015 the new F-gas regulation N° 517/2014 is applicable in all EU member states.
    The new F-gas regulation introduces three key measures:

    • A phase down mechanism with a freeze of HFC quantities placed on the market in 2015 followed by a gradual reduction down to 21% in 2030. To implement the phase down, the European Commission allocates yearly quotas to refrigerant producers and importers for selling refrigerants on the market. To neutralize the GWP value of each gas, quotas are expressed in tons of CO2 equivalent (the mass of refrigerant multiplied by the GWP value)

    HFC Phase Down (tons of CO2 Equivalent)


    • Bans on the placing on the market of the following products


    • Bans on the use of HFC’s with very high GWP > 2500 (R404A…) to service equipment


    MAC Directive

    Emissions from air conditioning systems in motor vehicles are regulated by the European Mobile Air Conditioning directive (MAC).
    The directive stipulates that from January 2017, all new cars must use a refrigerant with GWP < 150.

    EN 378 standard

    The European technical standard EN378 relates to safety and environmental requirements in the design, manufacture, construction, installation, operation, maintenance, repair and disposal of refrigerating systems and appliances including heat pumps. It consists of four parts:
    Part 1: Basic requirements, definitions, classification and selection criteria
    Part 2: Design, construction, testing, marking and documentation
    Part 3: Installation site and personal protection
    Part 4: Operation, maintenance, repair and recovery

    The last edition EN378: 2016 includes the new 2L safety classes

    Refrigerant safety class

    EN378 technical standard sets refrigerant safety classes depending on their flammability and toxicity. Substances with lower toxicity are classified from A1 non-flammable to A3 highly flammable while substances with higher toxicity are classified from B1 non-flammable to B3 highly flammable.
    In 2006 new A2L & B2L classes were introduced for mildly flammable refrigerants with a burning velocity < 10 cm/second

    Safety classes of main refrigerants:


    Building safety codes

    National building safety codes are setting mandatory safety requirements for buildings, for HVAC equipment they often refer to EN378 technical standard. In certain markets, eg, Italy, France, Spain… national building codes can set more stringent safety requirements than the EN378 standard.


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